Topic: Difference between guess and hypothesis meaning
July 20, 2019 / By Devan Question:
"As a black hole or neutron star destroys a star, tremendous amounts of radiation are released. Just as electrons and positrons emit the tell-tale gamma rays upon annihilation, so too can gamma rays combine to form electrons and positrons, providing the mechanism for the creation of the antimatter cloud, scientists think."
I guess I meant "Have you read this", because, yea, it's impossible too see I suppose.
Candi | 6 days ago
It has been understood for a while that matter does not normally fall directly into black holes. Black holes are very small things (in terms of size) and anything that falls "towards" a black hole will rarely travel in an exact straight line towards the centre.
So matter ends up orbiting the black hole before falling through the event horizon.
While in the accretion disc, friction with other matter already there heats up the stuff, sometimes to millions of degrees (it then emits X-rays, gamma rays and very powerful radiation -- this is the stuff that would kill life before it got anywhere near the event horizon).
Because of the intense heat, and because of the extremely steep gravitational gradient (a.k.a. tidal effect), matter gets ripped apart to atoms, atoms to particles, particles to quarks... (and we are not sure what happens after).
At some point, you have all these charged particles (electrons, protons, quarks?) orbiting the black hole at some very high speed.
Moving charged particle = electric current.
Rotating electric current = magnetic field.
Extremely strong magnetic field.
Magnetic field can repel electric currents (easy demo in a lab with a magnet and a long wire that is free to move).
Magnetic fields Strong enough that they expel some of the charged particles away from the black hole (in a direction perpendicular to the disc). The lighter particles (electrons, for example) will travel fastest, sometimes close to the speed of light.
If the breakdown in the disc does proceed to quarks, then these will recombine to form (through the random process) an equal amount of matter (e.g., electrons and protons) and anti-matter (positrons and anti-protons), each ejected along its own track.
(Observations of two tracks were done decades ago and we had to develop various hypotheses to try and explain the observations -- the above is only one of the many hypotheses).
Of course, it is difficult, at these distance and with our instruments, to tell whether a stream is made up of electrons moving with the magnetic field or positrons moving "against" the field (i.e., out the other magnetic pole): the behaviour of the two streams would be exactly the same.
Also, photons are their own anti-particle (in other words, there is no difference between a photon and an anti-photon). Since astronomy sees with photons (whether they be photons of light energy or radio energy), we cannot tell directly whether we look at "normal" photons or "anti-"photons.
So, we have to look for clues. And what you show us is one of those clues.
Amsterdam, or u could go to London and then fly on those extremely cheap flights within Europe for 1 pound with Ryanair or easy jet and also see germany
The other person in my office studies that stuff. Pretty cool, huh? I'm going to forward that article to her.